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3D printing technique

Selective laser sintering
(SLS) is an condiment manufacturing (AM) technique that uses a light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation as the power and heat source to sinter powdered material (typically nylon or polyamide), aiming the laser automatically at points in space defined by a 3D model, binding the material together to create a solid construction.[1]
It is similar to selective laser melting; the 2 are instantiations of the same concept merely differ in technical details. SLS (too as the other mentioned AM techniques) is a relatively new engineering that then far has mainly been used for rapid prototyping and for low-volume production of component parts. Production roles are expanding as the commercialization of AM technology improves.



Selective light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation sintering (SLS) was adult and patented by Dr. Carl Deckard and bookish adviser, Dr. Joe Beaman at the Academy of Texas at Austin in the mid-1980s, under sponsorship of DARPA.[4]
Deckard and Beaman were involved in the resulting start up visitor DTM, established to blueprint and build the SLS machines. In 2001, 3D Systems, the biggest competitor to DTM and SLS applied science, caused DTM.[5]
The well-nigh recent patent regarding Deckard’due south SLS applied science was issued January 28, 1997 and expired January 28, 2014.[half-dozen]

A similar process was patented without existence commercialized by R. F. Housholder in 1979.[7]

As SLS requires the utilise of high-powered lasers it is frequently too expensive, non to mention possibly too dangerous, to utilise in the habitation. The associated expense and potential danger of SLS printing due to lack of commercially available laser systems with Class-i safety enclosures ways that the dwelling market for SLS printing is not equally large equally the market for other condiment manufacturing technologies, such as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM).

Engineering science


An condiment manufacturing layer technology, SLS involves the apply of a high power laser (for case, a carbon dioxide laser) to fuse small particles of plastic, metallic, ceramic, or glass powders into a mass that has a desired iii-dimensional shape. The laser selectively fuses powdered cloth past scanning cross-sections generated from a 3-D digital description of the part (for example from a CAD file or scan data) on the surface of a powder bed. Later each cross-department is scanned, the powder bed is lowered past ane layer thickness, a new layer of fabric is applied on elevation, and the process is repeated until the part is completed.[8]

Selective laser sintering process
Scanner system
Powder commitment system
Pulverization commitment piston
Fabrication piston
Fabrication pulverization bed
Object being fabricated (run into inset)
Laser scanning management
Sintered pulverization particles (brown land)
Laser beam
Laser sintering
Pre-placed powder bed (green state)
Unsintered material in previous layers

Because finished office density depends on pinnacle laser power, rather than laser duration, a SLS machine typically uses a pulsed laser. The SLS machine preheats the bulk powder material in the powder bed somewhat beneath its melting betoken, to make it easier for the laser to enhance the temperature of the selected regions the residual of the way to the melting point.[nine]

In contrast with SLA and FDM, which near often require special support structures to fabricate overhanging designs, SLS does not need a split feeder for back up fabric because the part being constructed is surrounded by unsintered powder at all times. This allows for the construction of previously incommunicable geometries. Also, since the machine’s chamber is e’er filled with powder material the fabrication of multiple parts has a far lower touch on the overall difficulty and cost of the pattern considering through a technique known every bit ‘Nesting’, where multiple parts tin exist positioned to fit within the boundaries of the machine. One design aspect which should exist observed still is that with SLS it is ‘impossible’ to fabricate a hollow just fully enclosed element. This is because the unsintered pulverization within the chemical element could not exist drained.

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Since patents have started to expire, affordable dwelling house printers have become possible, but the heating process is still an obstacle, with a power consumption of upwards to 5 kW and temperatures having to exist controlled inside 2 °C for the three stages of preheating, melting and storing before removal. [1]



The quality of printed structures depends on the various factors include powder properties such every bit particle size and shape, density, roughness, and porosity.[ten]
Furthermore, the particle distribution and their thermal backdrop bear on a lot on the flowability of the powder.[11]

Commercially-available materials used in SLS come in powder form and include, but are non express to, polymers such as polyamides (PA), polystyrenes (PS), thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), and polyaryletherketones (PAEK).[12]
Polyamides are the nearly normally used SLS materials due to their platonic sintering behavior as a semi-crystalline thermoplastic, resulting in parts with desirable mechanical properties.[13]
Polycarbonate (PC) is a fabric of high involvement for SLS due to its loftier toughness, thermal stability, and flame resistance; notwithstanding, such amorphous polymers processed by SLS tend to result in parts with macerated mechanical properties, dimensional accurateness and thus are limited to applications where these are of low importance.[13]
Metal materials are not commonly used in SLS since the development of selective laser melting.

Powder Product


Powder particles are typically produced by cryogenic grinding in a ball mill at temperatures well beneath the glass transition temperature of the material, which tin be reached by running the grinding process with added cryogenic materials such as dry out water ice (dry grinding), or mixtures of liquid nitrogen and organic solvents (wet grinding).[xiv]
The process can result in spherical or irregular shaped particles as low every bit v microns in bore.[fourteen]
Powder particle size distributions are typically gaussian and range from 15 to 100 microns in diameter, although this can be customized to adapt different layer thicknesses in the SLS process.[15]
Chemical binder coatings tin be applied to the powder surfaces post-process;[sixteen]
these coatings help in the sintering process and are peculiarly helpful to form composite textile parts such as with alumina particles coated with thermoset epoxy resin.[15]

Sintering mechanisms


Diagram showing formation of cervix in ii sintered pulverization particles. Original shapes are shown in red.

Sintering in SLS primarily occurs in the liquid land when the powder particles forms a micro-melt layer at the surface, resulting in a reduction in viscosity and the formation of a concave radial bridge between particles, known as necking,[16]
due to the material’s response to lower its surface free energy. In the example of coated powders, the purpose of the laser is to cook the surface coating which will act as a binder. Solid state sintering is also a contributing cistron, albeit with a much reduced influence, and occurs at temperatures below the melting temperature of the material. The chief driving forcefulness behind the procedure is again the material’s response to lower its free free energy country resulting in diffusion of molecules across particles.

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SLS technology is in broad employ at many industries around the world due to its ability to easily make complex geometries with little to no added manufacturing effort. Its most common application is in prototype parts early in the pattern cycle such as for investment casting patterns, automotive hardware, and current of air tunnel models. SLS is also increasingly being used in limited-run manufacturing to produce cease-use parts for aerospace, military,[17]
medical, pharmaceutical,[18]
and electronics hardware. On a shop flooring, SLS can be used for rapid manufacturing of tooling, jigs, and fixtures.[19]
Because the process requires the use of a laser and other expensive, bulky equipment, it is not suited for personal or residential use; however, it has constitute applications in art [EOS artist citation with images].



  • The sintered pulverization bed is fully cocky-supporting, assuasive for:
    • high overhanging angles (0 to 45 degrees from the horizontal plane)
    • complex geometries embedded deep into parts, such equally conformal cooling channels
    • batch product of multiple parts produced in 3D arrays, a process called nesting
  • Parts possess high strength and stiffness
  • Good chemic resistance
  • Various finishing possibilities (e.g., metallization, stove enameling, vibratory grinding, tub coloring, bonding, powder, coating, flocking)
  • Bio compatible co-ordinate to EN ISO 10993-one[20]
    and USP/level VI/121 °C
  • Complex parts with interior components can be congenital without trapping the material inside and altering the surface from support removal.
  • Fastest condiment manufacturing process for printing functional, durable, prototypes or end user parts
  • Broad variety of materials with characteristics of force, durability, and functionality
  • Due to the reliable mechanical properties, parts tin can often substitute typical injection molding plastics



  • parts have porous surfaces; these tin be sealed by several unlike mail-processing methods such as cyanoacrylate coatings,[21]
    or by hot isostatic pressing.

Encounter also


  • 3D printing
  • Desktop manufacturing
  • Digital fabricator
  • Directly digital manufacturing
  • Fab lab
  • Fused deposition modeling (FDM)
  • Instant manufacturing, also known every bit
    direct manufacturing
    on-demand manufacturing
  • Rapid manufacturing
  • Rapid prototyping
  • RepRap Project
  • Solid freeform fabrication
  • Stereolithography (SLA)
  • Von Neumann universal constructor



  1. ^

    Lekurwale, Srushti; Karanwad, Tukaram; Banerjee, Subham (2022-06-01). “Selective laser sintering (SLS) of 3D printlets using a 3D printer comprised of IR/red-diode laser”.
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    Awad, Atheer; Fina, Fabrizio; Goyanes, Alvaro; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul West. (2021-07-01). “Advances in pulverization bed fusion 3D press in drug delivery and healthcare”.
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    Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy.
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  4. ^

    Deckard, C., “Method and apparatus for producing parts past selective sintering”,
    U.S. Patent 4,863,538, filed October 17, 1986, published September 5, 1989.

  5. ^

    Lou, Alex and Grosvenor, Carol “Selective Laser Sintering, Birth of an Industry”,
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  7. ^

    Housholder, R., “Molding Process”,
    U.Due south. Patent 4,247,508, filed December three, 1979, published January 27, 1981.

  8. ^

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  9. ^

    Prasad M. D. V. Yarlagadda; Due south. Narayanan (Feb 2005).
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    Leturia, Yard.; Benali, M.; Lagarde, S.; Ronga, I.; Saleh, K. (2014-02-01). “Characterization of flow backdrop of cohesive powders: A comparative study of traditional and new testing methods”.
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  11. ^

    Leu, Ming C.; Pattnaik, Shashwatashish; Hilmas, Gregory E. (March 2012). “Investigation of light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation sintering for freeform fabrication of zirconium diboride parts”.
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    Schmidt, Jochen; Plata, Miguel; Tröger, Sulay; Peukert, Wolfgang (September 2012). “Production of polymer particles below 5μm by wet grinding”.
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    Yang, Qiuping; Li, Huizhi; Zhai, Yubo; Li, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Peizhi (2018-08-thirteen). “The synthesis of epoxy resin coated Al2O3 composites for selective light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation sintering 3D printing”.
    Rapid Prototyping Journal.
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    Kruth, J‐P.; Mercelis, P.; Van Vaerenbergh, J.; Froyen, 50.; Rombouts, M. (Feb 2005). “Binding mechanisms in selective light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation sintering and selective light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation melting”.
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  17. ^

    Islam, Muhammed Kamrul; Hazell, Paul J.; Escobedo, Juan P.; Wang, Hongxu (July 2021). “Biomimetic armour pattern strategies for additive manufacturing: A review”.
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    Trenfield, Sarah J.; Awad, Atheer; Goyanes, Alvaro; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul W. (May 2018). “3D Printing Pharmaceuticals: Drug Development to Frontline Care”.
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    “Selective Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation Sintering Applications Overview | Quickparts”.
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  20. ^

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  21. ^

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External links


  • Selective Laser Sintering, Birth of an Industry
  • Laser sintering, melting and others – SLS, SLM, DMLS, DMP, EBM, SHS
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