Al2o3 H2o Al Oh 3

Al2o3 H2o Al Oh 3

Oxide of silicon

Silicon dioxide
Sample of silicon dioxide.jpg

A sample of silicon dioxide

Names
IUPAC name

Silicon dioxide

Other names

  • Quartz
  • Silica
  • Silicic oxide
  • Silicon(Four) oxide
  • Crystalline silica
  • Pure Silica
  • Silicea
  • Silica sand
Identifiers

CAS Number

  • 7631-86-9
    check
    Y
ChEBI
  • CHEBI:30563
    check
    Y
ChemSpider
  • 22683
    check
    Y
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.678
Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 231-545-4
E number E551 (acidity regulators, …)

Gmelin Reference

200274
KEGG
  • C16459
    check
    Y
MeSH Silicon+dioxide

PubChem
CID

  • 24261
RTECS number
  • VV7565000
UNII
  • ETJ7Z6XBU4
    check
    Y

CompTox Dashboard
(EPA)

  • DTXSID1029677
    Edit this at Wikidata

InChI

  • InChI=1S/O2Si/c1-three-2check
    Y

    Central: VYPSYNLAJGMNEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-Northcheck
    Y

Properties

Chemical formula

SiOtwo
Molar mass 60.08 thousand/mol
Appearance Transparent solid (Amorphous) White/Whitish Yellow (Pulverisation/Sand)
Density two.648 (α-quartz), 2.196 (baggy) k·cm−3
[i]
Melting point ane,713 °C (3,115 °F; i,986 K) (baggy)[1]

: 4.88

to
Boiling signal 2,950 °C (v,340 °F; 3,220 K)[ane]

Magnetic susceptibility (χ)

−29.six·10−6
cm3/mol
Thermal conductivity 12 (|| c-axis), half-dozen.eight (⊥ c-axis), ane.4 (am.) W/(m⋅K)[i]

: 12.213

Refractive alphabetize (n
D)

1.544 (o), one.553 (eastward)[1]

: 4.143
Hazards
NFPA 704
(fire diamond)

0

0

0

NIOSH
(US health exposure limits):

PEL (Permissible)

TWA 20 mppcf (lxxx mg/thouiii/%SiO2) (amorphous)[2]

REL (Recommended)

TWA six mg/thou3
(baggy)[2]

Ca TWA 0.05 mg/miii
[3]

IDLH (Firsthand danger)

3000 mg/chiliadthree
(amorphous)[2]

Ca [25 mg/grand3
(cristobalite, tridymite); 50 mg/1000three
(quartz)][3]
Related compounds

Related diones

Carbon dioxide

Germanium dioxide
Tin dioxide
Atomic number 82 dioxide

Related compounds

Silicon monoxide

Silicon sulfide

Thermochemistry

Std molar
entropy
(S

298)

42 J·mol−1·Yard−i
[4]

Std enthalpy of
formation
f
H

298)

−911 kJ·mol−1
[4]

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

☒
Northverify (what is
check
Y
☒
N
 ?)

Infobox references

Chemic compound

Silicon dioxide, as well known as
silica, is an oxide of silicon with the chemic formula
SiOtwo
, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.[5]
[6]
In many parts of the world, silica is the major elective of sand. Silica is i of the near complex and most arable families of materials, existing as a compound of several minerals and as a constructed product. Notable examples include fused quartz, fumed silica, silica gel, opal and aerogels. It is used in structural materials, microsystem electronics (as an electric insulator), and equally components in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Structure

[edit]

Structural motif found in α-quartz, but also found in almost all forms of silicon dioxide

Typical subunit for depression pressure silicon dioxide

Relationship between refractive alphabetize and density for some SiOii
forms[7]

In the majority of silicates, the silicon atom shows tetrahedral coordination, with four oxygen atoms surrounding a primal Si atom (see 3-D Unit Cell). Thus, SiOtwo
forms 3-dimensional network solids in which each silicon atom is covalently bonded in a tetrahedral manner to 4 oxygen atoms. In contrast, COii
is a linear molecule. The starkly different structures of the dioxides of carbon and silicon are a manifestation of the double bail dominion.

SiO2
has several dean crystalline forms, just they nigh e’er take the same local structure effectually Si and O. In α-quartz the Si–O bond length is 161 pm, whereas in α-tridymite it is in the range 154–171 pm. The Si–O–Si angle likewise varies betwixt a depression value of 140° in α-tridymite, up to 180° in β-tridymite. In α-quartz, the Si–O–Si bending is 144°.[8]

Polymorphism

Alpha quartz is the almost stable form of solid SiO2
at room temperature. The high-temperature minerals, cristobalite and tridymite, have both lower densities and indices of refraction than quartz. The transformation from α-quartz to beta-quartz takes place abruptly at 573 °C. Since the transformation is accompanied by a significant alter in volume, it can easily induce fracturing of ceramics or rocks passing through this temperature limit.[ix]
The high-force per unit area minerals, seifertite, stishovite, and coesite, though, have higher densities and indices of refraction than quartz.[x]
Stishovite has a rutile-like structure where silicon is 6-coordinate. The density of stishovite is 4.287 g/cmiii, which compares to α-quartz, the densest of the depression-force per unit area forms, which has a density of ii.648 thou/cmiii.[11]
The divergence in density tin can be ascribed to the increment in coordination as the half-dozen shortest Si–O bond lengths in stishovite (iv Si–O bond lengths of 176 pm and two others of 181 pm) are greater than the Si–O bond length (161 pm) in α-quartz.[12]
The change in the coordination increases the ionicity of the Si–O bond.[13]
More importantly, whatever deviations from these standard parameters institute microstructural differences or variations, which correspond an arroyo to an amorphous, vitreous, or glassy solid.

Faujasite silica, another polymorph, is obtained by dealumination of a low-sodium, ultra-stable Y zeolite with combined acid and thermal treatment. The resulting product contains over 99% silica, and has loftier crystallinity and specific surface area (over 800 m2/g). Faujasite-silica has very high thermal and acid stability. For example, it maintains a high degree of long-range molecular gild or crystallinity even afterwards boiling in concentrated hydrochloric acid.[xiv]

Molten SiOii

Molten silica exhibits several peculiar concrete characteristics that are similar to those observed in liquid water: negative temperature expansion, density maximum at temperatures ~5000 °C, and a estrus capacity minimum.[15]
Its density decreases from two.08 m/cm3
at 1950 °C to 2.03 g/cm3
at 2200 °C.[16]

Molecular SiO2

The molecular SiO2
has a linear structure like COtwo. It has been produced by combining silicon monoxide (SiO) with oxygen in an argon matrix. The dimeric silicon dioxide, (SiO2)2
has been obtained past reacting Otwo
with matrix isolated dimeric silicon monoxide, (Si2Oii). In dimeric silicon dioxide at that place are two oxygen atoms bridging betwixt the silicon atoms with an Si–O–Si angle of 94° and bail length of 164.vi pm and the terminal Si–O bail length is 150.two pm. The Si–O bail length is 148.three pm, which compares with the length of 161 pm in α-quartz. The bond energy is estimated at 621.7 kJ/mol.[17]

Natural occurrence

[edit]

Geology

[edit]

SiO2

is well-nigh usually found in nature every bit quartz, which comprises more than 10% past mass of the World’s crust.[eighteen]
Quartz is the only polymorph of silica stable at the Earth’s surface. Metastable occurrences of the loftier-pressure level forms coesite and stishovite have been found effectually affect structures and associated with eclogites formed during ultra-high-pressure level metamorphism. The high-temperature forms of tridymite and cristobalite are known from silica-rich volcanic rocks. In many parts of the world, silica is the major elective of sand.[19]

Biology

[edit]

Even though it is poorly soluble, silica occurs in many plants such as rice. Plant materials with high silica phytolith content appear to exist of importance to grazing animals, from chewing insects to ungulates. Silica accelerates tooth wear, and high levels of silica in plants frequently eaten past herbivores may have developed as a defense mechanism confronting predation.[20]
[21]

Silica is also the main component of rice husk ash, which is used, for example, in filtration and as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) in cement and concrete manufacturing.[
citation needed
]

For well over a billion years, silicification in and by cells has been common in the biological world. In the modern world, information technology occurs in bacteria, unmarried-celled organisms, plants, and animals (invertebrates and vertebrates). Prominent examples include:

  • Tests or frustules (i.due east. shells) of diatoms, Radiolaria, and testate amoebae.[6]
  • Silica phytoliths in the cells of many plants, including Equisetaceae, practically all grasses, and a wide range of dicotyledons.
  • The spicules forming the skeleton of many sponges.

Crystalline minerals formed in the physiological environment frequently evidence infrequent physical properties (e.grand., strength, hardness, fracture toughness) and tend to form hierarchical structures that exhibit microstructural order over a range of scales. The minerals are crystallized from an environment that is undersaturated concerning silicon, and under conditions of neutral pH and low temperature (0–40 °C).

It is unclear in what ways silica is important in the diet of animals. This field of research is challenging because silica is ubiquitous and in most circumstances dissolves in trace quantities only. All the aforementioned, it certainly does occur in the living body, creating the challenge of creating silica-costless controls for purposes of research. This makes information technology hard to be certain when the silica present has had operative beneficial effects, and when its presence is coincidental, or fifty-fifty harmful. The current consensus is that information technology certainly seems of import in the growth, strength, and management of many connective tissues. This is truthful not only for hard connective tissues such as os and teeth[
clarification needed
]

only peradventure in the biochemistry of the subcellular enzyme-containing structures besides.[22]
[
obsolete source
]

Uses

[edit]

Structural utilize

[edit]

About 95% of the commercial apply of silicon dioxide (sand) occurs in the construction industry, e.one thousand. for the production of concrete (Portland cement physical).[18]

Certain deposits of silica sand, with desirable particle size and shape and desirable clay and other mineral content, were important for sand casting of metallic products.[23]
The high melting bespeak of silica enables it to be used in such applications such as iron casting; modern sand casting sometimes uses other minerals for other reasons.

Crystalline silica is used in hydraulic fracturing of formations which contain tight oil and shale gas.[24]

Precursor to glass and silicon

[edit]

Silica is the principal ingredient in the production of most glass. As other minerals are melted with silica, the principle of freezing bespeak low lowers the melting point of the mixture and increases fluidity. The drinking glass transition temperature of pure SiO2
is nigh 1475 M.[25]
When molten silicon dioxide SiO2
is speedily cooled, it does not crystallize, but solidifies as a drinking glass. Because of this, most ceramic glazes take silica every bit the principal ingredient.

The structural geometry of silicon and oxygen in drinking glass is similar to that in quartz and well-nigh other crystalline forms of silicon and oxygen with silicon surrounded past regular tetrahedra of oxygen centres. The departure between the glass and crystalline forms arises from the connectivity of the tetrahedral units: Although in that location is no long-range periodicity in the glassy network ordering remains at length scales well beyond the SiO bail length. One example of this ordering is the preference to form rings of 6-tetrahedra.[26]

The bulk of optical fibers for telecommunications are as well made from silica. It is a primary raw material for many ceramics such equally earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain.

Silicon dioxide is used to produce elemental silicon. The process involves carbothermic reduction in an electric arc furnace:[27]



SiO 2 + 2 C Si + 2 CO {\displaystyle {\ce {SiO2 + two C -> Si + 2 CO}}}

Baca Juga :   Unsur Budaya Kesenian Yang Dapat Dinikmati Oleh Mata Disebut

Fumed silica

[edit]

Fumed silica, also known as pyrogenic silica, is prepared by called-for SiCl4
in an oxygen-rich hydrogen flame to produce a “smoke” of SiOii.[11]



SiCl 4 + 2 H 2 + O 2 SiO 2 + 4 HCl {\displaystyle {\ce {SiCl4 + 2 H2 + O2 -> SiO2 + 4 HCl}}}

[28]
The particles act as a thixotropic thickening agent, or as an anti-caking agent, and can be treated to make them hydrophilic or hydrophobic for either water or organic liquid applications

Manufactured fumed silica with maximum surface area of 380 10002/g

Silica fume is an ultrafine pulverization collected as a by-product of the silicon and ferrosilicon alloy production. It consists of amorphous (non-crystalline) spherical particles with an average particle diameter of 150 nm, without the branching of the pyrogenic product. The primary use is as pozzolanic textile for high performance physical. Fumed silica nanoparticles can exist successfully used as an anti-aging agent in asphalt binders.[29]


Food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications

[edit]

Silica, either colloidal, precipitated, or pyrogenic fumed, is a common additive in food product. It is used primarily as a menstruum or anti-caking amanuensis in powdered foods such equally spices and non-dairy java creamer, or powders to be formed into pharmaceutical tablets.[28]
It can adsorb water in hygroscopic applications. Colloidal silica is used as a fining agent for wine, beer, and juice, with the E number reference
E551.[18]

In cosmetics, silica is useful for its low-cal-diffusing properties[30]
and natural absorbency.[31]

Diatomaceous earth, a mined product, has been used in nutrient and cosmetics for centuries. Information technology consists of the silica shells of microscopic diatoms; in a less processed course it was sold equally “tooth pulverisation”.[
citation needed
]

Manufactured or mined hydrated silica is used as the hard annoying in toothpaste.

Semiconductors

[edit]

Silicon dioxide is widely used in the semiconductor applied science

  • for the principal passivation (direct on the semiconductor surface),
  • every bit an original gate dielectric in MOS applied science. Today when scaling (dimension of the gate length of the MOS transistor) has progressed below ten  nm silicon dioxide has been replaced past other dielectric materials similar hafnium oxide or similar with college dielectric constant compared to silicon dioxide,
  • as a dielectric layer between metallic (wiring) layers (sometimes upward to 8-10) connecting elements and
  • as a second passivation layer (for protecting semiconductor elements and the metallization layers) typically today layered with some other dielectrics like silicon nitride.

Because silicon dioxide is a native oxide of silicon it is more widely used compared to other semiconductors like Gallium arsenide or Indium phosphide.

Silicon dioxide could exist grown on a silicon semiconductor surface.[32]
Silicon oxide layers could protect silicon surfaces during improvidence processes, and could be used for diffusion masking.[33]
[34]

Surface passivation is the process by which a semiconductor surface is rendered inert, and does non change semiconductor properties as a consequence of interaction with air or other materials in contact with the surface or edge of the crystal.[35]
[36]
The germination of a thermally grown silicon dioxide layer greatly reduces the concentration of electronic states at the silicon surface.[36]
SiOtwo
films preserve the electrical characteristics of p–north junctions and prevent these electrical characteristics from deteriorating by the gaseous ambient environment.[34]
Silicon oxide layers could be used to electrically stabilize silicon surfaces.[33]
The surface passivation procedure is an important method of semiconductor device fabrication that involves coating a silicon wafer with an insulating layer of silicon oxide so that electricity could reliably penetrate to the conducting silicon below. Growing a layer of silicon dioxide on meridian of a silicon wafer enables information technology to overcome the surface states that otherwise preclude electricity from reaching the semiconducting layer.[35]
[37]

The process of silicon surface passivation by thermal oxidation (silicon dioxide) is critical to the semiconductor industry. It is commonly used to manufacture metallic-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and silicon integrated excursion chips (with the planar process).[35]
[37]

Other

[edit]

Hydrophobic silica is used as a defoamer component.

In its capacity as a refractory, information technology is useful in fiber form as a high-temperature thermal protection fabric.[
citation needed
]

Silica is used in the extraction of DNA and RNA due to its ability to bind to the nucleic acids under the presence of chaotropes.[38]

Silica aerogel was used in the Stardust spacecraft to collect extraterrestrial particles.[39]

Pure silica (silicon dioxide), when cooled equally fused quartz into a glass with no true melting point, can be used as a glass fibre for fibreglass.

Insecticide

[edit]

Silicon dioxide has been researched for agricultural applications as a potential insecticide.[40]
[41]

Production

[edit]

Silicon dioxide is mostly obtained by mining, including sand mining and purification of quartz. Quartz is suitable for many purposes, while chemic processing is required to make a purer or otherwise more suitable (e.g. more reactive or fine-grained) product.[
citation needed
]

Precipitated silica

[edit]

Precipitated silica or amorphous silica is produced by the acidification of solutions of sodium silicate. The gelled precipitate or silica gel, is start washed and and so dehydrated to produce colorless microporous silica.[11]
The idealized equation involving a trisilicate and sulfuric acrid is:



Na ii Si 3 O 7 + H 2 And so iv 3 SiO 2 + Na 2 SO iv + H ii O {\displaystyle {\ce {Na2Si3O7 + H2SO4 -> 3 SiO2 + Na2SO4 + H2o}}}

[18]

On microchips

[edit]

Thin films of silica grow spontaneously on silicon wafers via thermal oxidation, producing a very shallow layer of almost one nm or ten Å of then-called native oxide.[42]
Higher temperatures and alternative environments are used to abound well-controlled layers of silicon dioxide on silicon, for instance at temperatures betwixt 600 and 1200 °C, using so-called dry oxidation with O2



Si + O 2 SiO 2 {\displaystyle {\ce {Si + O2 -> SiO2}}}

[43]
[44]



Si + two H 2 O SiO 2 + two H 2 {\displaystyle {\ce {Si + 2 Water -> SiO2 + ii H2}}}

[45]

Laboratory or special methods

[edit]

From organosilicon compounds

[edit]

Many routes to silicon dioxide showtime with an organosilicon compound, e.g., HMDSO,[46]
TEOS. Synthesis of silica is illustrated below using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS).[47]
Simply heating TEOS at 680–730 °C results in the oxide:



Si ( OC 2 H 5 ) four SiO ii + 2 O ( C ii H five ) 2 {\displaystyle {\ce {Si(OC2H5)iv -> SiO2 + 2 O(C2H5)2}}}



Si ( OC 2 H five ) 4 + 12 O two SiO ii + 10 H 2 O + 8 CO ii {\displaystyle {\ce {Si(OC2H5)4 + 12 O2 -> SiO2 + 10 Water + 8 CO2}}}

[48]



Si ( OC 2 H 5 ) 4 + 2 H 2 O SiO two + four HOCH 2 CH three {\displaystyle {\ce {Si(OC2H5)4 + ii H2O -> SiO2 + 4 HOCH2CH3}}}

Other methods


[edit]

Being highly stable, silicon dioxide arises from many methods. Conceptually simple, only of trivial practical value, combustion of silane gives silicon dioxide. This reaction is analogous to the combustion of methane:



SiH four + ii O 2 SiO ii + 2 H 2 O {\displaystyle {\ce {SiH4 + 2 O2 -> SiO2 + 2 H2O}}}

[49]

Chemic reactions

[edit]

Silica is converted to silicon by reduction with carbon.

Fluorine reacts with silicon dioxide to form SiF4
and O2
whereas the other halogen gases (Cl2, Br2, Itwo) are essentially unreactive.[eleven]

Nearly forms of silicon dioxide (except for stishovite, which does not react to any significant degree[l]) are attacked by hydrofluoric acid (HF) to produce hexafluorosilicic acid:[eight]



SiO 2 + 6 HF H 2 SiF 6 + ii H 2 O {\displaystyle {\ce {SiO2 + 6 HF -> H2SiF6 + two H2O}}}



Si ( s ) + six HF ( aq ) [ SiF 6 ] 2 ( aq ) + 2 H + ( aq ) + two H 2 ( yard ) {\displaystyle {\ce {Si(s) + 6HF(aq) -> [SiF6]^{two-}(aq) + 2H+(aq) + 2H2(k)}}}



Si ( s ) + iv NaOH ( aq ) [ SiO 4 ] four ( aq ) + 4 Na + ( aq ) + two H 2 ( g ) {\displaystyle {\ce {Si(s) + 4NaOH(aq) -> [SiO4]^{4-}(aq) + 4Na+(aq) + 2H2(g)}}}

[51]

Silicon dioxide dissolves in hot full-bodied alkali or fused hydroxide, every bit described in this idealized equation:[11]



SiO 2 + two NaOH Na 2 SiO 3 + H 2 O {\displaystyle {\ce {SiO2 + ii NaOH -> Na2SiO3 + H2O}}}

[8]
As an example the reaction of sodium oxide and SiO2
can produce sodium orthosilicate, sodium silicate, and glasses, dependent on the proportions of reactants:[eleven]



two Na 2 O + SiO 2 Na iv SiO 4 ; {\displaystyle {\ce {2 Na2O + SiO2 -> Na4SiO4;}}}



Na 2 O + SiO ii Na 2 SiO 3 ; {\displaystyle {\ce {Na2O + SiO2 -> Na2SiO3;}}}



( 0.25 0.8 ) {\displaystyle (0.25-0.eight)}





Na 2 O + SiO 2 glass {\displaystyle {\ce {Na2O + SiO2 -> glass}}}

Baca Juga :   Lagu Si Kancil Anak Nakal Merupakan Lagu Bertangga Nada

Examples of such glasses take commercial significance, e.yard. soda-lime drinking glass, borosilicate glass, atomic number 82 drinking glass. In these glasses, silica is termed the network old or lattice quondam.[eight]
The reaction is as well used in blast furnaces to remove sand impurities in the ore past neutralisation with calcium oxide, forming calcium silicate slag.

Silicon dioxide reacts in heated reflux under dinitrogen with ethylene glycol and an alkali metal base of operations to produce highly reactive, pentacoordinate silicates which provide admission to a broad variety of new silicon compounds.[52]
The silicates are essentially insoluble in all polar solvent except methanol.

Silicon dioxide reacts with elemental silicon at high temperatures to produce SiO:[viii]



SiO 2 + Si two SiO {\displaystyle {\ce {SiO2 + Si -> two SiO}}}

Water solubility


[edit]

The solubility of silicon dioxide in water strongly depends on its crystalline form and is three-four times higher for silica[
description needed
]

than quartz; as a function of temperature, it peaks around 340 °C (644 °F).[53]
This property is used to grow single crystals of quartz in a hydrothermal process where natural quartz is dissolved in superheated water in a pressure level vessel that is cooler at the top. Crystals of 0.5–1  kg can exist grown for 1–2 months.[8]
These crystals are a source of very pure quartz for use in electronic applications.[eleven]
Above the critical temperature of h2o 647.096 K (373.946 °C; 705.103 °F) and a pressure of 22.064 megapascals (iii,200.1 psi) or higher, water is a supercritical fluid and solubility is again higher than at lower temperatures.[54]

Wellness effects

[edit]

Quartz sand (silica) as main raw material for commercial drinking glass product

Silica ingested orally is essentially nontoxic, with an LDfifty
of 5000 mg/kg (v thou/kg).[18]
A 2008 study following subjects for 15 years found that college levels of silica in water appeared to decrease the take chances of dementia. An increase of 10 mg/day of silica in drinking water was associated with a decreased risk of dementia of 11%.[55]

Inhaling finely divided crystalline silica dust can atomic number 82 to silicosis, bronchitis, or lung cancer, every bit the grit becomes lodged in the lungs and continuously irritates the tissue, reducing lung capacities.[56]
When fine silica particles are inhaled in large enough quantities (such as through occupational exposure), it increases the risk of systemic autoimmune diseases such as lupus[57]
and rheumatoid arthritis compared to expected rates in the general population.[41]

Occupational chance

[edit]

Silica is an occupational take chances for people who practise sandblasting or work with products that contain powdered crystalline silica. Baggy silica, such equally fumed silica, may crusade irreversible lung damage in some cases but is not associated with the development of silicosis. Children, asthmatics of any historic period, those with allergies, and the elderly (all of whom have reduced lung capacity) can be affected in less time.[58]

Crystalline silica is an occupational hazard for those working with stone countertops, because the procedure of cutting and installing the countertops creates big amounts of airborne silica.[59]
Crystalline silica used in hydraulic fracturing presents a health hazard to workers.[24]

Pathophysiology

[edit]

In the trunk, crystalline silica particles do non deliquesce over clinically relevant periods. Silica crystals inside the lungs tin can activate the NLRP3 inflammasome within macrophages and dendritic cells and thereby result in product of interleukin, a highly pro-inflammatory cytokine in the immune system.[60]
[61]
[62]

Regulation

[edit]

Regulations restricting silica exposure ‘with respect to the silicosis hazard’ specify that they are concerned merely with silica, which is both crystalline and dust-forming.[63]
[64]
[65]
[66]
[67]
[68]

In 2013, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration reduced the exposure limit to fifty µg/grandthree
of air. Prior to 2013, it had allowed 100 µg/thou3
and in construction workers fifty-fifty 250 µg/yard3.[24]
In 2013, OSHA also required “green completion” of fracked wells to reduce exposure to crystalline silica besides restricting the limit of exposure.[24]

Crystalline forms

[edit]

SiO2, more so than almost whatsoever material, exists in many crystalline forms. These forms are called polymorphs.

Crystalline forms of SiO2
[8]
Grade Crystal symmetry
Pearson symbol, group No.
ρ
thou/cmthree
Notes Construction
α-quartz rhombohedral (trigonal)
hP9, P3121 No.152[69]
ii.648 Helical chains making individual single crystals optically active; α-quartz converts to β-quartz at 846 K A-quartz.png
β-quartz hexagonal
hP18, P6two22, No. 180[70]
two.533 Closely related to α-quartz (with an Si-O-Si angle of 155°) and optically active; β-quartz converts to β-tridymite at 1140 Grand B-quartz.png
α-tridymite orthorhombic
oS24, C222ane, No.twenty[71]
2.265 Metastable class under normal pressure A-tridymite.png
β-tridymite hexagonal
hP12, P63/mmc, No. 194[71]
Closely related to α-tridymite; β-tridymite converts to β-cristobalite at 2010 K B-tridymite.png
α-cristobalite tetragonal
tP12, P41two12, No. 92[72]
two.334 Metastable form under normal pressure A-cristobalite.png
β-cristobalite cubic
cF104, Fd3m, No.227[73]
Closely related to α-cristobalite; melts at 1978 1000 B-cristobalite.png
keatite tetragonal
tP36, P41two12, No. 92[74]
three.011 Si5O10, Si4O8, Si8Oxvi
rings; synthesised from glassy silica and brine at 600–900 K and twoscore–400 MPa
Keatite.png
moganite monoclinic
mS46, C2/c, No.15[75]
SifourO8
and Si6O12
rings
Moganite.png
coesite monoclinic
mS48, C2/c, No.15[76]
2.911 SifourOviii
and Si8Oxvi
rings; 900 K and 3–3.five GPa
Coesite.png
stishovite tetragonal
tP6, P4two/mnm, No.136[77]
4.287 One of the densest (together with seifertite) polymorphs of silica; rutile-like with 6-fold coordinated Si; 7.5–eight.five GPa Stishovite.png
seifertite orthorhombic
oP, Pbcn[78]
4.294 1 of the densest (together with stishovite) polymorphs of silica; is produced at pressures above 40 GPa.[79] SeifertiteStructure.png
melanophlogite cubic (cP*, P4232, No.208)[seven]
or tetragonal (P42/nbc)[eighty]
two.04 Si5Ox, Sihalf-dozenO12
rings; mineral always found with hydrocarbons in interstitial spaces – a clathrasil (silica clathrate)[81]
MelanophlogiteStucture.png
fibrous
Due west-silica[11]
orthorhombic
oI12, Ibam, No.72[82]
1.97 Like Sistertwo
consisting of edge sharing chains, melts at ~1700 Grand
SiS2typeSilica.png
2d silica[83] hexagonal Sheet-similar bilayer structure 2D silica structure.png

Rubber

[edit]

Inhaling finely divided crystalline silica tin can lead to severe inflammation of the lung tissue, silicosis, bronchitis, lung cancer, and systemic autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Inhalation of amorphous silicon dioxide, in loftier doses, leads to non-permanent short-term inflammation, where all effects heal.[84]

Other names

[edit]

This extended list enumerates synonyms for silicon dioxide; all of these values are from a unmarried source; values in the source were presented capitalized.[85]

  • CAS 112945-52-five
  • Acitcel
  • Aerosil
  • Amorphous silica dust
  • Aquafil
  • CAB-O-GRIP II
  • CAB-O-SIL
  • CAB-O-SPERSE
  • Catalogue
  • Colloidal silica[
    citation needed
    ]
  • Colloidal silicon dioxide
  • Dicalite
  • DRI-Dice Insecticide 67
  • FLO-GARD
  • Fossil flour
  • Fumed silica
  • Fumed silicon dioxide
  • HI-SEL
  • LO-VEL
  • Ludox
  • Nalcoag
  • Nyacol
  • Santocel
  • Silica
  • Silica aerogel
  • Silica, baggy
  • Silicic anhydride
  • Silikill
  • Synthetic baggy silica
  • Vulkasil

See also

[edit]

  • Mesoporous silica
  • Orthosilicic acid
  • Silicon carbide

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External links

[edit]

  • Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).
    “Silica”.
    Encyclopædia Britannica
    (11th ed.). Cambridge Academy Press.

  • Tridymite, International Chemical Rubber Card 0807
  • Quartz, International Chemical Rubber Card 0808
  • Cristobalite, International Chemic Condom Carte du jour 0809
  • amorphous, NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
  • crystalline, as respirable grit, NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
  • Germination of silicon oxide layers in the semiconductor industry. LPCVD and PECVD method in comparing. Stress prevention.
  • Quartz SiOtwo
    piezoelectric backdrop
  • Silica (SiO2) and Water
  • Epidemiological testify on the carcinogenicity of silica: factors in scientific judgement by C. Soutar and others. Plant of Occupational Medicine Research Report TM/97/09
  • Scientific opinion on the health effects of airborne silica by A Pilkington and others. Institute of Occupational Medicine Inquiry Report TM/95/08
  • The toxic furnishings of silica Archived 2016-04-fifteen at the Wayback Machine by A Seaton and others. Institute of Occupational Medicine Enquiry Study TM/87/13
  • Structure of precipitated silica
Baca Juga :   Jelaskan Yg Dimaksud Kerajinan Sebagai Bagian Dari Industri Kreatif



Al2o3 H2o Al Oh 3

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silicon_dioxide