Not Rindu Sendiri

Not Rindu Sendiri

Arabic word for God

Standard arabic:



) is the common Standard arabic word for God. In the English language, the discussion generally refers to God in Islam.[3]
The give-and-take is thought to be derived by contraction from
al-ilāh, which ways “the god”, and is linguistically related to the Aramaic words Elah and Syriac


(ʼAlāhā) and the Hebrew word
(Elohim) for God.[6]

The word
has been used past Arabic people of different religions since pre-Islamic times.[eight]
The pre-Islamic Arabs worshipped a supreme deity whom they chosen Allah, alongside other lesser deities.[9]
Muhammad used the give-and-take
to indicate the Islamic formulation of God.
has been used as a term for God past Muslims (both Arab and non-Arab) and even Arab Christians[10]
after the term “al-ilāh” and “Allah” were used interchangeably in Classical Arabic by the majority of Arabs who had become Muslims. It is also oftentimes, admitting not exclusively, used in this mode by Bábists, Baháʼís, Mandaeans, Indonesian and Maltese Christians, and Sephardi Jews.[11]
Similar usage past Christians and Sikhs in Westward Malaysia has recently led to political and legal controversies.[14]


The etymology of the discussion
has been discussed extensively by classical Arab philologists.[18]
Grammarians of the Basra school regarded it equally either formed “spontaneously” (murtajal) or as the definite class of
(from the exact root
with the meaning of “lofty” or “hidden”).[eighteen]
Others held that it was borrowed from Syriac or Hebrew, merely most considered information technology to be derived from a contraction of the Standard arabic definite commodity
“the” and


“deity, god” to


“the deity”, or
“the God”.[18]
The majority of modern scholars subscribe to the latter theory, and view the loanword hypothesis with skepticism.[xix]

Cognates of the name “Allāh” exist in other Semitic languages, including Hebrew and Aramaic.[20]
The corresponding Aramaic form is
), simply its emphatic state is


). It is written equally


) in Biblical Aramaic and


) in Syriac as used by the Assyrian Church building, both pregnant simply “God”.[21]

History of usage

Pre-Islamic Arabians

Regional variants of the word
occur in both infidel and Christian pre-Islamic inscriptions.[8]
Different theories have been proposed regarding the role of Allah in pre-Islamic polytheistic cults. Co-ordinate to the Islamic scholar Ibn Kathir, Arab pagans considered Allah as an unseen God who created and controlled the Universe. Pagans believed worship of humans or animals who had lucky events in their life brought them closer to God. Pre-Islamic Meccans worshiped Allah aslope a host of bottom gods and those whom they called the “daughters of Allah.”[9]
Islam forbade worship of anyone or matter other than God.[23]
Some authors have suggested that polytheistic Arabs used the name every bit a reference to a creator god or a supreme deity of their pantheon.[24]
The term may have been vague in the Meccan religion.[24]
According to ane hypothesis, which goes back to Julius Wellhausen, Allah (the supreme deity of the tribal federation effectually Quraysh) was a designation that consecrated the superiority of Hubal (the supreme deity of Quraysh) over the other gods.[8]
Still, there is also evidence that Allah and Hubal were two distinct deities.[8]
According to that hypothesis, the Kaaba was commencement consecrated to a supreme deity named Allah and then hosted the pantheon of Quraysh later their conquest of Mecca, about a century before the time of Muhammad.[8]
Some inscriptions seem to indicate the use of Allah as a name of a polytheist deity centuries earlier, simply nothing precise is known about this use.[8]
Some scholars have suggested that Allah may have represented a remote creator god who was gradually eclipsed by more particularized local deities.[27]
There is disagreement on whether Allah played a major role in the Meccan religious cult.[27]
No iconic representation of Allah is known to have existed.[29]
Allah is the only god in Mecca that did not have an idol.[31]
Muhammad’s father’s proper name was


meaning “the slave of Allāh”.[26]


In Islam,
is the unique, omnipotent and but deity and creator of the universe and is equivalent to God in other Abrahamic religions.[11]
is commonly seen as the personal proper name of God, a notion which became disputed in contemporary scholarship, including the question, whether or not the word
should be translated as

According to Islamic belief, Allah is the most common discussion to stand for God,[33]
and apprehensive submission to his volition, divine ordinances and commandments is the pivot of the Muslim faith.[xi]
“He is the just God, creator of the universe, and the estimate of humankind.”[11]
“He is unique (


) and inherently one (


), all-merciful and almighty.”[11]
No human eyes can come across Allah till the Day Of Judgement.[34]
The Qur’an declares “the reality of Allah, His inaccessible mystery, His various names, and His deportment on behalf of His creatures.”[eleven]
Allah doesn’t depend on anything.[35]
God is not a part of the Christian Trinity.[36]
God has no parents and no children.[37]

The concept correlates to the Tawhid, where chapter 112 of the Qur’an (Al-‘Ikhlās, The Sincerity) reads:

SAY, God is one GOD;
۝ the eternal GOD:
۝ He begetteth not, neither is He begotten:
۝ and there is not any one like unto Him.[39]

and in the Ayat ul-Kursi (“Verse of the Throne”), which is the 255th verse and the powerful poesy in the longest affiliate (the 2nd affiliate) of the Qur’an,
(“The Cow”) states:

“Allah! In that location is no deity but
Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither sleep nor sleep overtaketh

belongeth whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the world. Who could intercede in
presence without

knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is backside them, while they comprehend nothing of
knowledge except what

throne includeth the heavens and the globe, and
is never weary of preserving them.

is the Sublime, the Tremendous.”

In Islamic tradition, there are 99 Names of God (

al-asmā’ al-ḥusná

lit. meaning: ‘the best names’ or ‘the nigh beautiful names’), each of which evoke a distinct characteristic of Allah.[12]
All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name.[41]
Among the 99 names of God, the most famous and virtually frequent of these names are “the Merciful” (ar-Raḥmān) and “the Compassionate” (


including the forementioned above
(“the One, the Indivisible”) and
(“the Unique, the Unmarried”).

Most Muslims use the untranslated Arabic phrase

in shā’a llāh

(meaning ‘if God wills’) after references to future events.[42]
Muslim discursive piety encourages commencement things with the invocation of

bi-smi llāh

(meaning ‘In the name of God’).[43]
In that location are certain phrases in praise of God that are favored past Muslims, including “
Subḥāna llāh
” (Glory be to God), “
al-ḥamdu li-llāh
” (Praise be to God), “
lā ilāha illā llāh
” (There is no deity just God) or sometimes “lā ilāha illā inta/ huwa” (There is no deity but
Him) and “
Allāhu Akbar
” (God is the Most Great) as a devotional exercise of remembering God (dhikr).[44]

Silk material console repeating the name Allah, North Africa, 18th century

In a Sufi practise known every bit
dhikr Allah
ذكر الله, lit. “Remembrance of God”), the Sufi repeats and contemplates the name
or other associated divine names to Him while controlling his or her breath.[45]
For case, in countless references in the context from the Qur’an forementioned above:

1) Allah is referred to in the 2nd person pronoun in Arabic as “Inta
(Arabic: َإِنْت)” like the English “You lot“, or ordinarily in the third person pronoun “Huwa
(Arabic: َهُو)” like the English “He” and uniquely in the case pronoun of the oblique form “Hu/ Huw
(Arabic: هو /-هُ)” like the English “Him” which rhythmically resonates and is chanted as considered a sacred audio or echo referring Allah every bit the “Absolute Jiff or Soul of Life” –
Al-Nafs al-Hayyah
(Standard arabic: النّفس الحياة,
an-Nafsu ‘l-Ḥayyah) – notably among the 99 names of God, “the Giver of Life” (al-Muḥyī) and “the Bringer of Death” (al-Mumiyt);

Baca Juga :   Ksp Feoh2

two) Allah is neither male or female (who has no gender), but who is the essence of the “Omnipotent, Selfless, Absolute Soul (an-Nafs,
النّفس) and Holy Spirit” (ar-Rūḥ,
الرّوح) – notably among the 99 names of God, “the All-Holy, All-Pure and All-Sacred” (al-Quddus);

3) Allah is the originator of both before and beyond the cycle of cosmos, devastation and time, – notably among the 99 names of God, “the First, Beginning-less” (al-Awwal), “the End/ Beyond [“the Concluding Abode”]/ Countless” (al-Akhir/ al-Ākhir) and “the Timeless” (aṣ-Ṣabūr).

According to Gerhard Böwering, in contrast with pre-Islamic Arabian polytheism, God in Islam does not take associates and companions, nor is there any kinship between God and jinn.[33]
Pre-Islamic pagan Arabs believed in a blind, powerful, inexorable and insensible fate over which man had no control. This was replaced with the Islamic notion of a powerful but provident and merciful God.[11]

According to Francis Edward Peters, “The Qur’ān insists, Muslims believe, and historians affirm that Muhammad and his followers worship the same God as the Jews ( 29:46). The Qur’an’s Allah is the same Creator God who covenanted with Abraham”. Peters states that the Qur’an portrays Allah as both more powerful and more than remote than Yahweh, and equally a universal deity, unlike Yahweh who closely follows Israelites.[46]


The Christian Arabs of today have no other word for “God” than “Allah”,[47]
except Jehovah’south Witnesses who add the biblical name “Jehovah” (يهوه) to the title “Allah”.[48]
Similarly, the Aramaic give-and-take for “God” in the language of Assyrian Christians is
ʼĔlāhā, or
Alaha. (Even the Arabic-descended Maltese language of Republic of malta, whose population is almost entirely Cosmic, uses
for “God”.) Arab Christians, for instance, use the terms

Allāh al-ab

الله الأب
) for God the Begetter,

Allāh al-ibn

الله الابن
) for God the Son, and

Allāh ar-rūḥ al-quds

الله الروح القدس
) for God the Holy Spirit. (See God in Christianity for the Christian concept of God.)

Arab Christians have used two forms of invocations that were affixed to the beginning of their written works. They adopted the Muslim


, and also created their ain Trinitized


equally early as the 8th century.[49]
The Muslim


reads: “In the name of God, the Empathetic, the Merciful.” The Trinitized


reads: “In the proper noun of Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, Ane God.” The Syriac, Latin and Greek invocations do not have the words “I God” at the end. This add-on was made to emphasize the monotheistic aspect of Trinitarian conventionalities and as well to go far more palatable to Muslims.[49]

Co-ordinate to Marshall Hodgson, it seems that in the pre-Islamic times, some Arab Christians made pilgrimage to the Kaaba, a pagan temple at that fourth dimension, honoring Allah there as God the Creator.[50]

Some archaeological excavation quests have led to the discovery of ancient pre-Islamic inscriptions and tombs made past Arab Christians in the ruins of a church at Umm el-Jimal in Northern Hashemite kingdom of jordan, which initially, co-ordinate to Enno Littman (1949), independent references to Allah every bit the proper proper name of God. However, on a 2d revision by Bellamy et al. (1985 & 1988) the 5-versed-inscription was re-translated as “(1)This [inscription] was fix up by colleagues of ʿUlayh, (2) son of ʿUbaydah, secretarial assistant (iii) of the cohort Augusta Secunda (4) Philadelphiana; may he go mad who (5) effaces it.”[51]

The syriac discussion ܐܠܗܐ (ʼĔlāhā) can be plant in the reports and the lists of names of Christian martyrs in South Arabia,[54]
as reported by antique Syriac documents of the names of those martyrs from the era of the Himyarite and Aksumite kingdoms[56]

In Ibn Ishaq’s biography there is a Christian leader named Abd Allah ibn Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad, who was martyred in Najran in 523, as he had worn a band that said “Allah is my lord”.[57]

In an inscription of Christian martyrion dated back to 512, references to ‘l-ilah (الاله)[58]
can be found in both Arabic and Aramaic. The inscription starts with the argument “By the Aid of ‘l-ilah”.[59]

In pre-Islamic Gospels, the proper name used for God was “Allah”, as evidenced by some discovered Arabic versions of the New Attestation written past Arab Christians during the pre-Islamic era in Northern and Southern Arabia.[61]
Yet most contempo research in the field of Islamic Studies by Sydney Griffith et al. (2013), David D. Grafton (2014), Clair Wilde (2014) & ML Hjälm et al. (2016 & 2017) assert that “all 1 can say about the possibility of a pre-Islamic, Christian version of the Gospel in Arabic is that no certain sign of its actual existence has yet emerged.”[62]
Additionally ML Hjälm in her well-nigh contempo inquiry (2017) inserts that “manuscripts containing translations of the gospels are encountered no earlier than the year 873”[67]

Irfan Shahîd quoting the 10th-century encyclopedic collection Kitab al-Aghani notes that pre-Islamic Arab Christians have been reported to take raised the battle cry “Ya La Ibad Allah” (O slaves of Allah) to invoke each other into boxing.[68]
According to Shahid, on the authority of 10th-century Muslim scholar Al-Marzubani, “Allah” was as well mentioned in pre-Islamic Christian poems past some Ghassanid and Tanukhid poets in Syria and Northern Arabia.[69]


The discussion
is more often than not pronounced
[ɑɫˈɫɑː(h)], exhibiting a heavy lām,
[ɫ], a velarized alveolar lateral approximant, a marginal phoneme in Modern Standard Standard arabic. Since the initial alef has no hamza, the initial
is elided when a preceding word ends in a vowel. If the preceding vowel is
/i/, the lām is light,
[50], every bit in, for instance, the Basmala.[72]

As a loanword

English and other European languages

The history of the proper name
in English language was probably influenced by the study of comparative religion in the 19th century; for example, Thomas Carlyle (1840) sometimes used the term Allah simply without any implication that Allah was anything different from God. However, in his biography of Muḥammad (1934), Tor Andræ e’er used the term
Allah, though he allows that this “conception of God” seems to imply that information technology is dissimilar from that of the Jewish and Christian theologies.[73]

Languages which may not commonly use the term
to denote God may still comprise popular expressions which use the word. For example, because of the centuries long Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula, the discussion
in the Spanish language and
in the Portuguese language exist today, borrowed from Arabic
(Arabic: إِنْ شَاءَ ٱللَّٰهُ). This phrase literally ways ‘if God wills’ (in the sense of “I hope so”).[74]
The High german poet Mahlmann used the form “Allah” as the championship of a poem about the ultimate deity, though information technology is unclear how much Islamic idea he intended to convey.

Some Muslims leave the name “Allāh” untranslated in English, rather than using the English language translation “God”.[75]
The word has likewise been applied to certain living man beings as personifications of the term and concept.[76]

Malaysian and Indonesian language

The first dictionary of Dutch-Malay by A.C. Ruyl, Justus Heurnius, and Caspar Wiltens in 1650 recorded “Allah” as the translation of the Dutch give-and-take “Godt”.

Christians in Malaysia and Indonesia utilize
to refer to God in the Malaysian and Indonesian languages (both of them standardized forms of the Malay language). Mainstream Bible translations in the language use
as the translation of Hebrew
(translated in English Bibles as “God”).[78]
This goes dorsum to early translation work past Francis Xavier in the 16th century.[79]
The first dictionary of Dutch-Malay by Albert Cornelius Ruyl, Justus Heurnius, and Caspar Wiltens in 1650 (revised edition from 1623 edition and 1631 Latin edition) recorded “Allah” as the translation of the Dutch discussion “Godt”.[81]
Ruyl also translated the Gospel of Matthew in 1612 into the Malay language (an early Bible translation into a non-European language,[82]
made a yr after the publication of the King James Version[83]
[84]), which was printed in the netherlands in 1629. Then he translated the Gospel of Mark, published in 1638.[85]

The regime of Malaysia in 2007 outlawed usage of the term
in any other but Muslim contexts, but the Malayan High Court in 2009 revoked the law, ruling information technology unconstitutional. While
had been used for the Christian God in Malay for more than four centuries, the gimmicky controversy was triggered by usage of
by the Roman Cosmic newspaper
The Herald. The government appealed the court ruling, and the High Courtroom suspended implementation of its verdict until the hearing of the appeal. In October 2013 the court ruled in favor of the government’s ban.[87]
In early 2014 the Malaysian regime confiscated more than 300 bibles for using the word to refer to the Christian God in Peninsular Malaysia.[88]
However, the employ of
is non prohibited in the two Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak.[89]
The principal reason information technology is not prohibited in these two states is that usage has been long-established and local Alkitab (Bibles) have been widely distributed freely in East Malaysia without restrictions for years.[89]
Both states likewise do not have similar Islamic state laws equally those in West Malaysia.[17]

In reaction to some media criticism, the Malaysian government has introduced a “10-point solution” to avert defoliation and misleading information.[91]
The 10-point solution is in line with the spirit of the 18- and twenty-indicate agreements of Sarawak and Sabah.[17]

National flags with “Allah” written on them


The give-and-take


is always written without an


to spell the


vowel. This is considering the spelling was settled before Arabic spelling started habitually using


to spell


. However, in vocalized spelling, a small diacritic


is added on top of the


to bespeak the pronunciation.

In the pre-Islamic Zabad inscription,[94]
God is referred to past the term

, that is, alif-lam-alif-lam-ha.[58]
This presumably indicates
= “the god”, without

Many Standard arabic type fonts characteristic special ligatures for Allah.[95]

Since Standard arabic script is used to write other texts rather than Koran but, rendering






as the previous ligature is considered faulty which is the instance with most common Arabic typefaces.

This simplified style is ofttimes preferred for clarity, peculiarly in non-Arabic languages, but may not be considered advisable in situations where a more elaborate style of calligraphy is preferred. –SIL International[96]


Unicode has a lawmaking point reserved for


‎ = U+FDF2, in the Standard arabic Presentation Forms-A block, which exists solely for “compatibility with some older, legacy character sets that encoded presentation forms direct”;[97]
this is discouraged for new text. Instead, the word


should be represented past its individual Arabic messages, while modern font technologies will return the desired ligature.

The calligraphic variant of the discussion used as the Coat of arms of Islamic republic of iran is encoded in Unicode, in the Miscellaneous Symbols range, at code point U+262B (☫).

See likewise

  • Abdullah (name)
  • Allah as a lunar deity
  • Emblem of Iran
  • Ismul Azam
  • Names of God

Further reading


  • Allah Qur’ān, in
    Encyclopædia Britannica Online, by Asma Afsaruddin, Brian Duignan, Thinley Kalsang Bhutia, Gloria Lotha, Marco Sampaolo, Matt StefonTesc, Noah Tesch and Adam Zeidan


  1. ^

    Random House Webster’s Entire Dictionary.

  2. ^

    Oxford Learner’south Dictionaries.

  3. ^

    Islam: Empire of Religion. PBS. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved
    18 December

  4. ^

    “Islam and Christianity”,
    Encyclopedia of Christianity
    (2001): Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews also refer to God as

  5. ^

    Gardet, L. “Allah”. In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, East.; Heinrichs, W.P. (eds.).
    Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Online. Retrieved
    2 May

  6. ^

    Zeki Saritoprak (2006). “Allah”. In Oliver Leaman (ed.).
    The Qur’an: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 34. ISBN978-0-415-32639-ane.

  7. ^

    Vincent J. Cornell (2005). “God: God in Islam”. In Lindsay Jones (ed.).
    Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol. 5 (2d ed.). MacMillan Reference USA. p. 724.

  8. ^







    Christian Julien Robin (2012).
    Arabia and Ethiopia. In The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity. OUP Us. pp. 304–305. ISBN978-0-19-533693-1.

  9. ^



    Anthony S. Mercatante & James R. Dow (2004). “Allah”.
    The Facts on File Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend. Facts on File. p. 53. ISBN978-1-4381-2685-two.

  10. ^

    Merriam-Webster. “Allah”.
    Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 20 April 2014. Retrieved
    25 February

  11. ^





    due east



    “Allah.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica
  12. ^






    Encyclopedia of the Modern Center East and Due north Africa,

  13. ^

    Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer
    The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition
    Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-8348-2414-0 page 531

  14. ^

    Sikhs target of ‘Allah’ attack, Julia Zappei, 14 January 2010,
    The New Zealand Herald. Accessed on line 15 January 2014.

  15. ^

    Malaysia court rules non-Muslims can’t use ‘Allah’, 14 October 2013,
    The New Zealand Herald. Accessed on line 15 January 2014.

  16. ^

    Malaysia’southward Islamic authorities seize Bibles as Allah row deepens, Niluksi Koswanage, two January 2014, Reuters. Accessed on line 15 January 2014. [one]
  17. ^




    Idris Jala (24 February 2014). “The ‘Allah’/Bible issue, ten-point solution is cardinal to managing the polarity”.
    The Star
    . Retrieved
    25 June

  18. ^




    D.B. Macdonald. Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed, Brill. “Ilah”, Vol. 3, p. 1093.

  19. ^

    Gerhard Böwering. Encyclopedia of the Quran, Brill, 2002. Vol. 2, p. 318

  20. ^

    Columbia Encyclopaedia says: Derived from an erstwhile Semitic root referring to the Divine and used in the Canaanite
    El, the Mesopotamian
    ilu, and the biblical
    Eloah, the word Allah is used by all Arabic-speaking Muslims, Christians, Jews, and other monotheists.

  21. ^

    The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon – Entry for
    Archived 18 Oct 2013 at the Wayback Machine

  22. ^

    Hitti, Philip Khouri (1970).
    History of the Arabs. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 100–101.

  23. ^

    Tafsir Ibn Kathir all 10 volumes. IslamKotob.

  24. ^



    L. Gardet,
    Allah, Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. by Sir H.A.R. Gibb

  25. ^

    Zeki Saritopak,
    Allah, The Qu’ran: An Encyclopedia, ed. past Oliver Leaman, p. 34
  26. ^



    Gerhard Böwering,
    God and his Attributes, Encyclopedia of the Qur’an, ed. by Jane Dammen McAuliffe
  27. ^



    Jonathan Porter Berkey (2003).

    The Formation of Islam: Religion and Lodge in the Near East, 600-1800
    . Cambridge University Press. p. 42. ISBN978-0-521-58813-3.

  28. ^

    Daniel C. Peterson (26 February 2007).
    Muhammad, Prophet of God. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 21. ISBN978-0-8028-0754-0.

  29. ^



    Francis Eastward. Peters (1994).
    Muhammad and the Origins of Islam. SUNY Press. p. 107. ISBN978-0-7914-1875-8.

  30. ^

    Irving M. Zeitlin (19 March 2007).
    The Historical Muhammad. Polity. p. 33. ISBN978-0-7456-3999-4.

  31. ^

    “Allah.” In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. i January 2019. <>.

  32. ^

    Andreas Görke and Johanna Pink Tafsir and Islamic Intellectual History Exploring the Boundaries of a Genre Oxford University Press in clan with The Institute of Ismaili Studies London ISBN 978-0-xix-870206-1 p. 478
  33. ^



    Böwering, Gerhard,
    God and His Attributes, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʼān, Brill, 2007.

  34. ^

    “The Quranic Arabic Corpus – Translation”.
    . Retrieved
    11 April

  35. ^

    “112. Surah Al-Ikhlaas or At-Tauhid –”. Retrieved
    11 April

  36. ^

    “The Quranic Arabic Corpus – Translation”.
    . Retrieved
    thirty March

  37. ^

    “The Quranic Standard arabic Corpus – Translation”.
    . Retrieved
    xxx March

  38. ^

    Arabic script in Unicode symbol for a Quran poetry, U+06DD, page 3, Proposal for boosted Unicode characters

  39. ^

    Sale, M AlKoran
  40. ^



    Bentley, David (September 1999).
    The 99 Beautiful Names for God for All the People of the Volume. William Carey Library. ISBN978-0-87808-299-v.

  41. ^

    Murata, Sachiko (1992).
    The Tao of Islam : a sourcebook on gender relationships in Islamic thought. Albany NY USA: SUNY. ISBN978-0-7914-0914-v.

  42. ^

    Gary S. Gregg,
    The Center Eastward: A Cultural Psychology, Oxford University Press, p.30

  43. ^

    Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban,
    Islamic Society in Practice, University Printing of Florida, p. 24

  44. ^

    M. Mukarram Ahmed, Muzaffar Husain Syed,
    Encyclopaedia of Islam, Anmol Publications PVT. LTD, p. 144

  45. ^

    Carl Due west. Ernst, Bruce B. Lawrence,
    Sufi Martyrs of Honey: The Chishti Order in South Asia and Across, Macmillan, p. 29

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    F.Eastward. Peters,
    Islam, p.four, Princeton University Press, 2003

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    The Cambridge history of Islam. Cambridge, Eng: Academy Press. p. 32. ISBN978-0-521-29135-4.

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    “سبِّحوا إِلهَنا يهوه! (Praise our God Jehovah!)”.
    . Retrieved
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    {{cite spider web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)

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    Thomas E. Burman,
    Religious Polemic and the Intellectual History of the Mozarabs, Brill, 1994, p. 103

  50. ^

    Marshall One thousand. S. Hodgson,
    The Venture of Islam: Censor and History in a Globe Civilisation, University of Chicago Press, p. 156

  51. ^

    James Bellamy, “2 Pre-Islamic Arabic Inscriptions Revised: Jabal Ramm and Umm al-Jimal”,
    Journal of the American Oriental Society, 108/3 (1988) pp. 372–378 (translation of the inscription) “This was set upward by colleagues/friends of ʿUlayh, the son of ʿUbaydah, secretary/adviser of the cohort Augusta Secunda Philadelphiana; may he go mad/crazy who effaces information technology.”

  52. ^

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    Ignatius Ya`qub III, The Arab Himyarite Martyrs in the Syriac Documents (1966), Pages: 9-65-66-89

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    M. A. Kugener, “Nouvelle Note Sur 50’Inscription Trilingue De Zébed”, Rivista Degli Studi Orientali, pp. 577-586.

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    Adolf Grohmann, Arabische Paläographie II: Das Schriftwesen und die Lapidarschrift (1971), Wien: Hermann Böhlaus Nochfolger, Page: 6-8

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    Beatrice Gruendler, The Development of the Arabic Scripts: From the Nabatean Era to the Get-go Islamic Century according to Dated Texts (1993), Atlanta: Scholars Press, Page:

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    Frederick Winnett V, Allah before Islam-The Moslem Globe (1938), Pages: 239–248

  62. ^

    Sidney H Griffith, “The Gospel in Arabic: An Enquiry into Its Appearance in the Starting time Abbasid Century”, Oriens Christianus, Volume 69, p. 166. “All one tin can say almost the possibility of a pre-Islamic, Christian version of the Gospel in Arabic is that no sure sign of its actual existence has yet emerged.

  63. ^

    Grafton, David D (2014).
    The identity and witness of Arab pre-Islamic Arab Christianity: The Arabic linguistic communication and the Bible.
    Christianity […] did not penetrate into the lives of the Arabs primarily because the monks did not translate the Bible into the colloquial and inculcate Arab culture with biblical values and tradition. Trimingham’s argument serves as an instance of the Western Protestant assumptions outlined in the introduction of this article. It is clear that the primeval Standard arabic biblical texts can only be dated to the 9th century at the earliest, that is after the coming of Islam.

  64. ^

    Sidney H. Griffith, The Bible in Arabic: The Scriptures of the ‘People of the Book’ in the Language of Islam. Jews, Christians and Muslims from the Ancient to the Modern World, Princeton University Press, 2013, pp242- 247 ff.

  65. ^

    The Arabic Bible before Islam – Clare Wilde on Sidney H. Griffith’s The Bible in Standard arabic. June 2014.

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    Hjälm, ML (2017).
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    Hjälm, ML (2017).
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    (English and Arabic ed.). Brill. ISBN978-90-04-34716-8.
    By contrast, manuscripts containing translations of the gospels are encountered no earlier then the year 873 (Ms. Sinai. N.F. parch. 14 & 16)

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    Irfan Shahîd, Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fourth Century, Dumbarton Oaks Trustees for Harvard Academy-Washington DC, page 418.

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    A. Amin and A. Harun, Sharh Diwan Al-Hamasa (Cairo, 1951), Vol. 1, Pages: 478-480

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    Al-Marzubani, Mu’jam Ash-Shu’araa, Folio: 302

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    “How do you pronounce “Allah” (الله) correctly?”.
    Arabic for NERDS. 16 June 2018. Archived from the original on 17 June 2018. Retrieved
    16 June

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    William Montgomery Watt,
    Islam and Christianity today: A Contribution to Dialogue, Routledge, 1983, p.45

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    Islam in Luce López Baralt,
    Spanish Literature: From the Middle Ages to the Nowadays, Brill, 1992, p.25

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    F. Eastward. Peters,
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    “Nation of Islam”.
    world wide Archived from the original on 13 August 2013.

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    “A history of Clarence 13X and the Five Percenters, referring to Clarence Smith equally Allah”. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved
    xiv Jan

  78. ^

    Instance: Usage of the discussion “Allah” from Matthew 22:32 in Indonesian bible versions (parallel view) as old equally 1733 Archived xix October 2013 at the Wayback Automobile

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    The Indonesian Linguistic communication: Its History and Role in Modern Gild Sneddon, James M.; University of New S Wales Press; 2004

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    The History of Christianity in Bharat from the Outset of the Christian Era: Hough, James; Adamant Media Corporation; 2001

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    Wiltens, Caspar; Heurnius, Justus (1650).
    Justus Heurnius, Albert Ruyl, Caspar Wiltens. “Vocabularium ofte Woordenboeck nae ordre van den alphabeth, in ‘t Duytsch en Maleys”. 1650:65. Archived from the original on 22 Oct 2013. Retrieved
    14 January

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    But compare:
    Milkias, Paulos (2011). “Ge’ez Literature (Religious)”.
    Ethiopia. Africa in Focus. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 299. ISBN978-ane-59884-257-9
    . Retrieved
    15 February
    Monasticism played a key role in the Ethiopian literary movement. The Bible was translated during the time of the 9 Saints in the early sixth century […].

  83. ^

    Barton, John (2002–12). The Biblical Globe, Oxford, Britain: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-27574-3.

  84. ^

    Northward, Eric McCoy; Eugene Albert Nida ((2nd Edition) 1972). The Volume of a Grand Tongues, London: United Bible Societies.

  85. ^

    “Sejarah Alkitab Indonesia / Albert Conelisz Ruyl”.

  86. ^

    “Encyclopædia Britannica: Albert Cornelius Ruyl”. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved
    14 January

  87. ^

    Roughneen, Simon (14 October 2013). “No more ‘Allah’ for Christians, Malaysian court says”.
    The Christian Science Monitor
    . Retrieved
    14 October

  88. ^

    “BBC News – More than 300 Bibles are confiscated in Malaysia”. BBC. 2 January 2014. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved
    14 Jan

  89. ^



    “Catholic priest should respect court: Mahathir”.
    Daily Express. 9 January 2014. Archived from the original on x January 2014. Retrieved
    10 Jan

  90. ^

    Jane Moh; Peter Sibon (29 March 2014). “Worship without hindrance”.
    The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved
    29 March

  91. ^

    “Bahasa Malaysia Bibles: The Chiffonier’due south 10-point solution”. 25 January 2014.

  92. ^

    “Najib: ten-point resolution on Allah outcome subject to Federal, state laws”.
    The Star. 24 January 2014. Retrieved
    25 June

  93. ^

    “Flags, Symbols & Currency of Uzbekistan”.
    WorldAtlas. 24 February 2021.

  94. ^

    “Zebed Inscription: A Pre-Islamic Trilingual Inscription In Greek, Syriac & Standard arabic From 512 CE”. Islamic Awareness. 17 March 2005.

  95. ^

    • Arabic fonts and Mac Bone X Archived 10 March 2008 at the Wayback Auto
    • Programs for Arabic in Mac Os 10 Archived half-dozen Oct 2013 at the Wayback Auto

  96. ^

    “Scheherazade New”.
    SIL International
    . Retrieved
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  97. ^

    The Unicode Consortium. FAQ – Middle Eastward Scripts Archived 1 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine

  98. ^

    Unicode Standard v.0, p.479, 492″
    (PDF). Archived from the original
    on 28 April 2014. Retrieved
    14 January

General references

  • The Unicode Consortium,
    Unicode Standard 5.0, Addison-Wesley, 2006, ISBN 978-0-321-48091-0, Almost the Unicode Standard Version five.0 Book

External links

  • Names of Allah with Meaning on Website, Flash, and Mobile Phone Software
  • Concept of God (Allah) in Islam
  • The Concept of Allāh Co-ordinate to the Qur’an past Abdul Mannan Omar
  • Allah, the Unique Proper noun of God
  • Standard arabic Fonts and Mac OS X
  • Programs for Arabic in Mac Bone Ten

Not Rindu Sendiri


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